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Moreover, while von Humboldt was able to see the value of Sanskrit and comparative linguistics, the classical philologists he supported did not. Most of the criticism resulted from the defects of novelty: the comparative methods were tentative, and the languages it used, including Sanskrit, were not yet well understood. Hegel had no knowledge of Sanskrit, but had read the latest scholarship about India and its literature.

Sanskrit studies and comparative linguistics stood together and mutually supported each other. However, although Prussia was the most willing of the German states to fund universities, all state treasuries have limits, and the struggle over expensive manuscript acquisition helps to highlight the role of Sanskrit studies to Prussia. Budget difficulties hit the weakest disciplines hardest, while the well established were assured of continuing support.

The acquisition of Sanskrit manuscripts for the university library was one further sign of government support for Sanskrit studies. It is no surprise that the discipline started with the English in India, where manuscripts were more readily available than in Europe. The texts themselves dated back thousands of years, but the age of the manuscript copies of these ancient writings were usually about three to five hundred years old. Through this process of comparison and redaction, their goal was to reach the earliest, most accurate, critical version of a text.

Germans also wanted manuscripts of their own. As of , the Royal Prussian Library in Berlin had oriental manuscripts, but only eight were of Indian origin. Two were Tamil manuscripts acquired in Paris in while the other six were Sanskrit manuscripts that included the Bhagavad- gita, a donation of an orientalist at Breslau, Georg Bernstein. In when Albrecht Weber returned to Berlin from studies in France and England he brought many manuscripts back with him.

Most of these expensive manuscripts were acquired through the British. Berlin would become the center of Sanskrit Studies, and the local university would have to be visited by everyone in Germany who is devoted to the same. Franz Bopp and other linguists were able to find a secure place for Sanskrit studies within the university by grounding it in the science of comparative linguistics.

This process required distancing it from earlier connections to the Romantic interest in India and instead pursuing scientifically significant work. But this separation was not entirely possible. This argument was in part a defensive maneuver in response to Classicist opposition described in the last chapter. The Sanskrit Sciences Mature By midcentury, the reforms von Humboldt had enacted were paying rich dividends for the domestic and international value of science in German universities.

It appeared as the highest authority, its representatives as the intellectual leaders of the nation. They are but brother races and sibling languages. Some of these German scholars working abroad never could tear themselves away from the palm leaves at the East India Company library and ended up staying abroad. Likewise, the Dessau-born Friedrich Max Muller studied in Leipzig, Berlin, Paris, and London during the s, and ended up spending virtually his entire career as a professor in Oxford.

Not only did German Sanskritists go abroad, but foreign scholars came to German universities as well, attracted by the growing quality of education there. For example, Otto Bohtlingk, after receiving his education in Berlin and Bonn, moved back to his birth city of St. He was able to work as a scholar without any other official or teaching duties to slow his work.

Until around , for every article on Japan in the Journal of the American Oriental Society there were five on China and thirty on India. After leaving Berlin, Whitney wrote several times a year to Weber, and returned to Europe to work with Rudolf von Roth at Tubingen the summer of From to , Bloomfield studied Sanskrit and comparative linguistics at Johns Hopkins.

He then taught at Columbia University, succeeded Whitney at Yale until , and served two terms as president of the American Oriental Society. The appeal of German universities for Sanskrit studies fit a pattern of American interest in German science. Institutions such as The Johns Hopkins University , the University of Michigan, and the University of Chicago founded graduate programs explicitly patterned on the German seminar system.

Since there were no graduate institutions at home, and British universities severely restricted the number and kind of American visitors, most aspiring scholars in the United States simply had nowhere to go but Germany. These volumes had increasing sophistication and scope. Each generation developed more detailed and well-informed approaches, building upon the efforts of their predecessors.

Scholars applied heightened rigor to each new field that Sanskrit studies engendered, from Vedic studies in the s to Buddhist and Jain studies in the s. The availability to Europeans of ancient Indian texts in translation reflected the growth of scholarship during the nineteenth century: in there were about a dozen translations; by around ; by , some ; and by , many thousands. Bopp and the Schlegels produced works containing short selections of great epics such as the Mahabharata and Ramayana.

Grammars, dictionaries, and academic journals were crucial aids to learning Sanskrit. Later, Otto Boh- tlingk and Rudolf von Roth completed a massive Sanskrit dictionary, published in seven volumes between and For example, in Julius H. Between and , A. By the mids, scholars began to undertake critical editions of Sanskrit texts, based on painstaking philological analyses of several manuscripts to determine the original form of the work.

European scholars began with the oldest Indian texts they knew: the Vedas. Whitney two volumes of the Atharva-Veda in and In , he became a reader at the University of Prague and became full professor in They ought to be shamed by it into a more fruitful scholarship. But for Muir and Cowell, they would be nowhere. In , Weber did this in Berlin, as did Roth in in Tubingen.

I may hand over the manuscripts to you if you give reasonable compensation. I hope you will avail yourself of the occasion. There are hundreds of these combinations—each, in effect, a separate letter. While studying in Paris, Franz Bopp complained about the high cost of Sanskrit materials.

By A. In , the image of the Buddha appeared on the first cover of the Zeitschrift fur Ethnologies In the foyer to the Berlin Ethnological Museum was a huge statue of the Buddha. What we wish is this, however: that our members, with the exception of the Austrians, not withdraw their work from ours for the purpose of supporting the Viennese Journal.

Starting in , these congresses met for about a week in September every two or three years. Accordingly, Paris and London were the sites for the first two congresses. At each congress, after welcoming speeches by dignitaries at a general meeting, participants met in smaller sections for the rest of the week to present papers and discuss developments within their subspecialties.

For example, Berlin Indologist Albrecht Weber was elected president of this section at the congress in Berlin, and the vast majority of the presentations were by German scholars. German scholars acknowledged their debts to their English colleagues in the East India Company, the source of the works such as Sakontala, and continued to praise the English trail- blazers such as Colebrooke. This attitude toward the English is not particularly surprising, considering the colonial rule the English had over modern India, a crucial source of manuscripts.

Many German Indologists had a close relationship to the English for this reason. As mentioned earlier, Max Muller and Friedrich Rosen worked for most of their professional lives in England. The venue as well as the content of the articles created a furor; they appeared in the journal Curtius Studien that Brugmann was temporarily editing for Professor Curtius.

The Junggrammatiker rebelled against the search for origins and even against the methods of Franz Bopp and his successors. The Junggrammatiker replaced the old idea that language was an organic entity—being born, living, decaying, and dying—with the concept of a language as a social construction that existed only within the people who speak it. Experts diversified their studies by investigating Sanskrit linguistics, Vedic and Jain scriptures, mythology, and Buddhism. Archaeology rose to even greater prominence around the turn of the century with the four expeditions to Turfan in central Asia.

They made these claims in introductions to their Indological books and articles, in letters, and in speeches. These three themes had been established by Romantics and had little to do with science. By maintaining these Romantic arguments about India, indological professors were able to capture the imagination and curiosity of a wide, educated audience. One prominent example is Wilhelm von Humboldt, who maintained a close friendship with Franz Bopp and studied Sanskrit seriously.

A great friend of his, Friedrich Rosen, had begun the same work. So Mendelssohn knew all about the Sacred Hymns of the Brahmans, and talked very intelligently about the Veda.

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He knew all about it, and had so much to tell me about the oldest book of mankind, that I had hardly a chance to say anything myself. One example of a philologist-poet was Friedrich Ruckert , professor of Orientalistik at the university in Berlin from to They contain relics of the childlike and naive conceptions then prevailing. Forster and A.

Schlegel thought Kalidasa had written Sakuntala during the second century BCE, five hundred years earlier than he actually had written it. Before long, however, painful efforts freed them from these Romantic superstitions. Aesthetic claims about Indian material extended to Sanskrit itself, to both its alphabet and its grammatical structure. It is too late. By claiming a more refined purpose of seeking intellectual treasures—a part of their Indian dominion that the English had cast aside, as pointed out in chapter 2—Germans could also claim a moral superiority to the British who were after mere material goods.

Yet even if English and Germans used different methods, they shared a mutual aim: extracting wealth from India. So Sir William Jones believed. It has given the West more than it has received. Another justification that Sanskritists made for their studies was the claim that a uniquely close ancestral relationship existed between ancient India and modern Germany. For example, German Sanskrit scholars maintained that both ancient Indians and modern Germans were especially erudite. Positing such a connection helped to justify the study of ancient India within modern Germany.

Some scholars emphasized the debt Greek culture owed to India in mathematics, philosophy, music, and religion. Yet Indologists agreed that the Romantic literary interest in India served as the stimulus for the scientific, linguistic analysis of Indian languages. Beyond these Romantic interests, there were newer colonial and missionizing motivations. While it is true that Germans did not have colonies themselves until the s and were not colonizers in India, they sympathized with the British who were there.

As soon as they are unveiled from the mysterious darkness surrounding them till now, and made accessible to all, all the untruths shall be automatically revealed, and this shall, in time, put an end to the sorry plight of religious decadence of India. First of all, Weber himself was religious. The ministry itself oversaw not only cultural activity but religious as well.

Furthermore, Karl Otto von Raumer was himself a conservative, religious man who was involved in the growth of church activity, including missionary work. Also disturbing for the professors was the appearance of Buddhist organizations led by their former students. This chapter examines these dynamics by focusing on two of these students: Karl Eugen Neumann and Karl Seidenstiicker.

The most useful include those by Hecker , , , Slepcevic , Baumann , Notz , Almond , and Welbon These materials include works by Leifer , the Wheel , Schumann , and Peiris These widely varying groups drew upon Buddhist ideas for very different projects. Yet all their efforts reflected a basic challenge that Buddhism provided to Europeans. The Growth of European Buddhism and Its Critics During the latter half of the nineteenth century, the English led the way in the development of Buddhist studies in Europe, just as they had with Sanskrit studies at the end of the previous century.

Hodgeson collected hundreds of original manuscripts that he sent to libraries in London and Paris, thus allowing European Indologists to look for themselves at the Buddhist materials. The study of Buddhism came much later than the Sanskrit comparative linguistics of the s and the Vedic studies of the s. In Germany, the career of Hermann Oldenberg was indicative of the arrival of Buddhist studies within the academic establishment. By , the publisher Triibner had printed thirty editions.

Oxford professor Friedrich Max Muller began editing these works in , and they eventually numbered forty-nine volumes. Many Germans developed an interest in Buddhism after first reading Schopenhauer. Richard Wagner began planning a play about the Buddha called Die Sieger.

Nietzsche believed the struggle in ancient India of the Buddha against the Brahmin guardians of the old Vedic order had its modern parallel in the late nineteenth century. Of the many movements and intellectual flurries of importance during this period, Social Democracy and Theosophy particularly illustrated the connection of Indological ideas to wider social developments and the association of the orthodox Indological mandarins with conservatism.

In the course of this century in Europe alone a powerful literature about this man has grown. Every newspaper wants a story about Buddha, every society a lecture. Raymond Schwab describes "two parallel sects that did not mix. The cultural crisis of the s reinforced these conservative values. From the s, Victorians had a polarized interest in Buddhism: they chose to either praise or vilify it. A similar attitude of attraction and revulsion developed in Germany. Thus Indo- logical professors also opposed Buddhist groups because of their own commitment to Christianity.

Jakobi church, edited eleven issues of Protestantische Zeitstimmen. The more one learns about the scope of Buddhism, the more oiie also sees its weaknesses that cannot stand before criticism. I know no religion and no philosophy that would even begin to take the place of Christianity for us. In he studied with the Indologist Richard Pischel in Halle and published his dissertation on Des Sarasangaho , a fourteenth-century Pali text. Although he never found a university post in India or Europe, he translated and published ten books about Buddhism in his spare time while working as a banker.

He died of illness on his fiftieth birthday in Friedrich, pp. He was very polite to me. He switched to philology in after working with Win- disch. His interest in Buddhism went far beyond just the academic, however. He assumed the post of general-secretary. Later, he had a falling out with another co-founder, Walter Markgraf, because Markgraf wanted to promote a more monastic Hinayana- based Buddhism, while Seidenstucker favored a Mahayana Buddhism more open to lay members.

He wrote fifty articles for these magazines. Academicians based their authority on their philological skill as scholars, to edit and interpret ancient texts hermeneutically. Thus the academic Indologists were interested in Buddhism as it had existed millennia ago. Perhaps most importantly, there was a direct and personal connection between Buddhist monks on Ceylon and the Bund fiir huddhistisches Lehen Association for Buddhist Life in Germany. Seidenstucker noted in one of his Buddhist periodicals Our executive committee member, Mr.

He plans to collect experiences and impressions of the old, honorable place of the pure Pali-Buddhism, so as to better realize our efforts to spread these old and true teachings of the Buddha. This work allowed him to complete his degree in with the approval of Windisch and Professor Karl Brugmann. If Windisch disapproved of these activities, why did he allow Seidenstiicker to graduate? Buddhism provoked such interest in Europe and Germany because of factors specific to the late nineteenth century.

But why did the larger public have any interest in these obscure Asian texts? A voracious reading public in Europe, increasingly attuned to a larger world, was ever eager to absorb new exploits of discovery. Jesus denied the devil three times, just as the Buddha had denied the temptations of Mara, lord of Samsara. Both religious leaders taught similar ethics of compassion and love. These elements of the lives of Buddha and Jesus were so close that they led to debates about the question of whether one set of stories influenced the other in antiquity.

Seidens- tiicker pointed this out in Die Buddischische Welt: "Opposing voices Who let it be known that the Buddhist influence in Germany is already fairly strong, reveal the situation that Christian apologetics will become ever more active in this [Buddhist] direction. He took the first from a spiritualist publication that praised the artistic achievement in a Japanese Buddhist Amitabha statue, saying "how highly developed Buddhist art is. Here we undoubtedly have a work of art of great beauty before us, one that would even make a deep impression on a Christian.

In this temple there were five hundred idols. I will never forget that strange, peculiar feeling that came over me in this temple as I saw only these grisly heathen idols surrounding me It appeared to me as if the entire atmosphere was filled with Satan, and I felt an inner trembling.

In July in Elberfeld in the Wuppertal, r. Wilhelm Hiibbe-Schleiden , a senior civil servant rom Hamburg and a lobbyist for German Imperialism, founded the first German Theosophical Society. Notovitch fell far too easy a victim to their jokes. Like the rest of the Indological community, Leopold von Schroeder welcomed his role in opposing the "big fat lie of the Russian N. He is punished with well-deserved contempt. The more we become familiar with the ancient literature of the East, the less we find of Oriental mysteries, of esoteric wisdom, of Isis veiled or unveiled.

Theosophists claimed that they had access to the teachings of this inner circle through writings and descendents of ancient disciples. Indologists such as Muller opposed these claims, instead maintaining that the Buddha himself spoke out against the idea that any of his teachings were secret.

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With this unclear and uncritical endeavor, neither the truth nor the welfare of mankind is served. The light of science must dispel these phantoms At the end of his book Buddha und Christus: Eine buddhistische Apologetik. The Sphinx ran monthly for ten years from to and was the official organ of the German Theosophical Society from to By October , the Theosophischer Wegweiser filled the void left by the defunct Sphinx and became the new official organ of the German Theosophical Society.

Like the professional Indologists, Seidenstiicker came to disapprove of some inaccurate statements Theosophists made misrepresenting key Buddhist concepts. As a result, in Seidenstiicker set a firm boundary between the Spiritualists and the Buddhism advocated by the Buddhistische Mis- sions-Verein in Deutschland. It was particularly difficult for early researchers to determine the Buddhist connection to other Indian religions such as Brahmanism and Jainism. Wilhelm von Humboldt and A.

Colebrooke and J. Even later scholars such as Horace H. By the end of the century, the Germans Biihler and Jacobi were able to show the distinction between Buddhism and Jainism, although other scholars did not universally accept their theory. The s were a period of discontent throughout much of Europe and North America. Buddhists in Europe themselves made many references to the s cultural critique of modernity in their literature. The Bund fiir buddhistische Leben stated that the various elements of the life reform movement were an integral part of their program.

The lay Buddhist will therefore be a follower of all important reforms, including vegetarianism, pacifism, and the freeing of medicine from the horrors of vivisection. He will champion temperance and the protection of children and animals, the rights of women and the right to found a family early, since only in this way can licentiousness and prostitution be curbed.

He chastened the Christian church for remaining silent on the issue of vivisection. Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II and chancellors such as Hohenlohe devoted much of their energy thwarting the power of the socialists. What is clear is that he wanted to prevent an intellectual union between the two.

It seems likely that the association between Buddhism and Social Democracy has more to do with the Indologists than with any actual interest from Social Democrats. And the great pessimists in history have all become aristocrats. The interest in the exotic, religious differences and the climate of cultural crisis help to explain the interest in Buddhism during this period. They cited the use of Buddhist ideas by Theosophists, and even by Social Democrats. The presence of groups actively spreading information about Buddhism as a viable alternative to Christianity troubled academic Indologists.

The Indologists, instead of helping to reconstruct a family tree from the past, were helping to bring into existence a future potentially dominated by a non-European, Asian religion. Earlier chapters of this book have traced reasons for the German interest in Indian languages and literature.

But they are constructed to serve the society in which they exist. German Indology and Modern India It may come as a surprise to those not familiar with the history of German Sanskrit studies or Indology that there has been any Indo- German connection at all. Imperial Germany had no colonies at all until ; when it did acquire its few overseas holdings, none were in India.

His towering personality, great scholarship and love for India. They all have an interest in promoting a connection. One can challenge the depth and limits of this purported Indo- German connection by examining the discourse embedded in this cultural trope. As cultural embassies, the Goethe Institute provides German language instruction, libraries, art exhibits, and stimulating cultural events for local citizens worldwide.

India is the only country in the world where the Goethe Institute has adopted a different name. I am not arguing that there was no connection; certainly there were Germans who made a contemporary, living connection, especially missionaries and travel writers, most of whom I have excluded from this study. Indo-German enthusiasts cite the interest in India by major literary figures such as Goethe and Nietzsche to prove the importance of the connection.

Germans such as Goethe sought a vast world literature in which India was a part of a larger Orient. Goethe wrote a short stanza on Sakontala, but he devoted an entire book to the Arab world, the East-West Divan. But he knew Persian and Arabic just as well as Sanskrit, and also wrote extensively about these cultural worlds. The size and influence of these organizations was limited. For instance, in the early twentieth century, there were many different Buddhist organizations in Germany, such as the Mahabodhigesellschaft Mahabodhi Society and the Bund fur Buddhistische Leben Association for Buddhist Life , but the same very small group of people including Karl Seiden- stiicker, Walter Markgraf, and Wolfgang Bohn founded them and formed the core of the limited membership.

Even the archetypal representative of the Indo-German connection, Max Muller , never went to India. Berlin-trained Hermann Oldenberg and Heinrich Liiders made the trip. The health hazards of the tropics may have dissuaded Indologists from risking the heat and disease in India. He wrote a scathing account of his stay in Indische Reiseskiz- zen , To complete the picture, he found the real Orient to be a repugnant and distasteful place that was distinctly inferior to Europe. To most Indians, the sahib was a sahib, and whether he was German or English did not matter in the least.

Yet scholars of indological and Orientalist topics often do not see the difference. It certainly has not been sufficiently illuminated by modern scholars. How influential was it? We are not inclined to put too high an estimate on the poetry that arose under its influence. One can see this emphasis on ancient India by examining enrollments in modern Indian language courses at Berlin and in scholarly rejection of missionary knowledge about contemporary Indian languages.

In Berlin, official interest in modern Indian languages was slight. The instructor hired to teach one or more of these courses was Friedrich Rosen between and , Herr Ghori until , and thereafter, until , Ardeshir Vacha, a young Parsee from Bombay.


There was little student interest in modern Indian languages at the University of Berlin. German merchants needed modern Indian languages to bolster their contacts with Indian traders who spoke these languages in German East Africa. Nevertheless, today it is spoken and written by million Indians, that is, by more than a third of the entire population of India, and has become virtually the Indian language of commerce, it will accordingly be seriously considered for the oriental instruction of other states, in the first case naturally in England but also in France.

They maintained this avid interest in modern Indian languages mostly so they could translate religious writings into local languages to better proselytize the natives. Trumpp mainly worked for the British, but during the s he was a professor at Munich for Semitic languages because they did not have a position for modern South Asian languages. Ferdinand Kittel spent ten years in India as a missionary, beginning in the mids. Attitudes varied with each university tradition. Still, one can say that there was a bias among academic Indologists against the work of missionaries.

One example of this critical attitude was the rejection of missionary work by A. Finally, the missionary advised Schlegel to use the word Bramine, or its Tamil version, Bramene or Biramene instead of the classical Sanskrit words Brahmane or Brachmane, which he said had gone out of use in India long ago. Like James Mill, Schlegel felt he knew India better from his closet in Europe than from actually being Schlegel rejected the Indological interests of missionaries, but he did show a preference for the work of the Indian grammarian Panini, author of the Astadhyayi, a codification of Sanskrit that set classical Sanskrit s form.

One can trace a division of opinion to the first chairhold- ers of Sanskrit studies in Germany, Schlegel and Bopp. That comes from a lack of classical training. At the beginning of his foreword he speaks disparagingly of Indian grammarians, with whom he is not even familiar. They also earned the continuing scorn of Berlin-trained Sanskritists. Wilhelm von Humboldt thought the English Sanskritist Cole- brooke degraded himself through his dependence on native experts.

The man did not have the power to free himself from the Indian grammarians and win an independent opinion. Professor Albrecht Weber in Berlin, a follower of Roth, opposed Pischel who preferred to rely on the commentators and the Indian literary tradition. Much as I am sorry that he should have been displaced, I can yet heartily rejoice that it is Rost who has won the succession: good for the cause of Sanskrit learning will come of it, I do not doubt, for the mental attitude, habits, and sympathies of a German scholar are certainly more promising than those of one who has had his training in India.

For what the literature contains, the literature itself suffices; we can understand it and present it vastly better than Panini could. There is in his book as complete an absence of like historical element as in Panini or Vopadeva. I think of giving a talk at our next Or.

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In addition to questioning the use of Panini by modern scholars, German Sanskritists also criticized the Indian scholarly tradition for not having an awareness of history. The vast cyclical aeons conceived by Indian religious systems were very different from the European conception of linear, historical time. Other scholars such as Hegel, Karl Marx, and Jacob Grimm developed projects with crucial historical dimensions.

The Brahmins have no conscience in respect to truth. Berlin professor Albrecht Weber worked during the s cataloging the collection of Sanskrit manuscripts in Berlin. Finding the Homeland of the Indo-Europeans A factor that worked to distance modern Germany from modern India was the search for the ancient homeland of the Indo-Europeans or, as they became known later in the nineteenth century, Aryans. At the beginning of the century, scholars thought the Indo-European homeland was in India.

By the end of the nineteenth century, almost no one believed this. Most scholars thought it was somewhere in the Caucasus or elsewhere in southern Russia. Nationalism and racism influenced other scholars to place the homeland in central Europe or Scandinavia. They linked ancient Aryans with blonde hair, blue eyes, and a drive to dominate.

Two theories emerged to explain the subsequent migrations. Another linguist, Johannes Schmidt, developed a second model, a wave-theory of languages spreading outward from centers. His model consisted of a series of interlocked circles. During the course of the nineteenth century, the consensus of scholarly opinion about the location of the Indo-European homeland shifted from Asia to Europe.

New theories about the origins of Aryans appeared as early as , shifting the origin westward to Europe. The location remained a hotly debated topic, and the debate was not resolved. Even today scholars have still not fully worked it out, although Southern Russia receives the consensus as the most likely place. The debates over the Indo-European homeland were driven primarily by nationalism, the ambiguity of the evidence, and racism. Even with these clues, however, there were still many areas to which these examples could apply. Warren and B. Tilak, who argued that the original Indo-European homeland was the North Pole.

The Rig Veda does portray conflict between Aryas and ugly, dark-skinned, irreligious dasas or dasyus. From the s, scholars who objected to the Asian origin of the Indo-Europeans consistently based their arguments on racist categories. Measuring skull sizes was of great interest to European scholars. For example, the Berlin ethnologist Rudolf Virchow was a prominent advocate of skull measurement. Under the pressure of nationalism and racism, scholars during the nineteenth century reinterpreted ambiguous linguistic data to move the Indo-European homeland from India to Northern Europe.

Pott believed the Indo-European homeland to be slightly more westward than India, in Oxus and Jaxartes, the area from the northern Himalayas to the Caspian Sea. Even Hegel, who denigrated Indian philosophy in the s and saw Asia as an early, immature stage in the development of history culminating in European supremacy, still did not deny that Asia was the origin of world civilization. Latham moved the site of origin even further west, arguing that the original homeland was in central Europe. The separation of Aryan from European may just as well be due to a spread and migration of the former into Asia as of the latter into Europe: and localities in Europe as well as in Asia have actually been pitched upon by eminent scholars.

Eurocentric scholars countered with a passage from Herodotus that indicated the presence of lions in Europe. He noticed that there was no identical name for autumn in the Indo-European languages, and thought it paralleled the Roman Tacitus, who observed the Germans had no word for autumn. He placed the precise homeland as the Pripet marshes in western Russia. In Vienna at the end of the s, liberals lost their position to mass parties of nationalist, working class, and Catholic interests.

The stock market crash of and subsequent decades of economic depression until the s fed into the resentment that fueled mass parties. Even though Herman Hirt and Otto Schrader may have had disagreements about location of the Indo-European homeland, they were united against racist arguments in linguistics. German Sanskntists were also divided on these issues. The legacy of nineteenth-century Indol- ogy, hke so much in German history, is complex and multivalent.

The degree to which Indologists contributed to racist theories, and thus helped to lay the intellectual groundwork for National Socialism, is unclear. We need to look at individual cases and explore the alternatives to the metanarrative of domination. In Berlin and Leipzig, there is an ambiguous picture. Scholars in Leipzig also showed complicity as well as tension with the regime. Friedrich Weller maintained a low profile during the Nazi period, low enough to continue with his work during the DDR.

Furthermore, he promoted Aryan solar myths in his work. Yet he had a furious court case with Mathilde Ludendorff — , the second wife of the famous general of the First World War. One cannot make sweeping claims about Sanskrit studies the way Pollock does because Sanskrit scholars had a mixed record: some supported and others opposed racist arguments. Several important, prominent Sanskrit scholars perpetuated racist claims about ancient Aryans. Although less explicitly racist in his judgments about skin pigmentation than later generations, he did link the development of ancient Indian civilization with the Aryans.

Only a few peoples of the Earth showed the ability to take part in this independent development; from the peoples of other races it was only the Chinese and Egyptians, and from the Caucasus only the Semites and Indo-Germans. He listed six of the seven civilizations in Eurasia as being formed at least in part from Aryans.

Men and peoples come rapidly to maturity in that land, like the plants of the tropical world, only just as rapidly to fall asleep both bodily and spiritually. In in an article in a popular magazine, Oldenberg claimed that racial mixing was a key to the shift. Mixing with the dark-colored natives changed the immigrants, making the Aryan into a Hindu. They have been the prominent actors.

They have perfected society and morals In continual struggle with each other and with Semitic and Turanian races, these Aryan nations have become the rulers of history, and it seems to be their mission to link all parts of the world together by the chains of civilisation, commerce, and religion.

But, like Dr. Frankenstein, Mtil- ler realized how hard it was for him to stop the monster he had helped to build. For example, in , Moriz Winternitz, serving as reader in Indo-Aryan philology and ethnology at the University of Prague, argued strenuously against the use of race. There are definite links between the early study of linguistics, nationalism, and Nazism in Germany, revealing a connection between Indology and Indomania. Several scholars have condemned the German study of India in the nineteenth century as a direct contributor to twentieth- century Nazi ideology.

Arguments casting Schlegel as a proto-Nazi ignore these complexities and other cultural interactions that Sanskrit studies had in Germany, such as those with Buddhism in chapter 6. Ultimately, however, there are limits to the ability of historians to trace the roots of Nazism. Liebenfels oversaw a hierarchy of offices within his order, assigning the rank of the brothers based on their degree of racial purity. Rather, the Theosophical Society provided a direct conduit into Europe for Indian culture and ideas from modern India, unfiltered through the prism of German Indology.

In the Theosophical duo formally converted to Buddhism and founded new branches of the Theosophical Society in Ceylon Sri Lanka , to the delight of large crowds. The former is nearly one million years old; the latter is a small sub-race some 8, years of age and no more. Blavatsky did draw upon translations, but most were by English Orientalists such as H. Yet in India today it does not carry the negative emotional charge it does in Europe and the United States.

It is a word of Indian origin and has its history and definite meaning in India Likewise, by the first decade of the twentieth century, Buddhist periodicals printed in Germany also prominently featured the swastika. For example, the cover of Der Buddhist featured a swastika in the center of a wheel-like design see figures 4 and 5. Theosophical ideas about the swastika dovetailed well with those of the volkisch camp.

Academic historians agreed that these courts had existed in the past and even dated back to pre-Christian times. Liebenfels gave him a some free copies and a little money for a ride home. An associate of List, Heinrich Winter, had a rough gravestone with a swastika in Hamburg in The Munich party of the Bavarian National Socialists adopted it soon after a joint meeting in Salzburg in August, He designed the colors of the Nazi flag and recommended a left-handed swastika, which based on his studies of Buddhism meant fortune and health.

However, the swastikas used by List and the Thule society had been right-handed, so both directions had been in use in the volkisch tradition. But to what degree was Wiist typical? The interaction between German Indologists and the Nazi regime itself is a complicated relationship. Academics volunteered their services for the regime, especially in the area of racial pseudoscience.

Virtually all of them were absolutely convinced of the value of their research. Most of them could have said no. He earned a PhD in and a university appointment in He became a full professor in Frankfurt in Coming to the conclusion that Christianity was not the only religious path with truth, Hauer went to Oxford to learn Sanskrit in and ended up earning a doctorate at Tubingen in , where he became a professor in Beyond the collaborators and those avoiding controversy, there also were Indologists who were opponents of the Nazi regime.

A handful of German Indologists were targets of the regime,! Pollock argues that the vectors of domination in the case of German Indology were directed inward toward Germany instead of outward, such as toward South Asia in the case of Indology in England. I believe a clear historical evaluation of this hypothesis is difficult, as German Sanskrit scholars depended on and aided English colonialism in India. Yet these scholars also were part of the growth of Wissenschaft in Europe, much of which was used to dominate populations in Europe as well as the rest of the world.

He then went as a reader to the University of Prague, where he became full professor from until his retirement in He died there in before the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia in March In he was forced out of the position and went to Ankara, Turkey, and Santiago de Chile in before returning to Humboldt University in East Berlin in Walter Neisser studied Indology at Breslau and Gottingen and although he did not pursue a university career, was a private scholar who worked on a Vedic dictionary in Breslau.

When the Nazis occupied Prague in , they removed him from his post because he was Jewish. Unable to leave, the Nazis transported Stein and his wife to Lodz ghetto in Poland where they died in Right before the First World War, he went to Calcutta University as a professor of Comparative Philology, but was interned in Ahmednagar from to because he was German, an enemy alien. After the war he returned to Germany, gaining a position at Breslau University in , which he lost in because he was Jewish.

Wiist was able to yoke In- dology into the service of the Nazi regime. To expand upon Pollock's argument, to test it, one must ask if there were anti-Nazi discourses developed from Indological themes. Did any resistors use the Bhagavad- gita, for example, to justify their stance against the government? Further research is needed to answer these questions. Looking back from the Nazi period, one can complicate the claims Pollock makes about Sanskrit studies because these scholars had a mixed record: some supported and others opposed racist arguments.

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the use of each of these elements by racist ideologues was taking shape but far from fixed. We know only too well that the Aryan myth had political consequences that were profoundly tragic. It is rather that, throughout this book, we have been sensitive to side-effects. Muller and a few others for example, Moriz Winternitz saw a hazard and acted against it. This position had significance for the development of the Indian independence movement toward swaraj self-rule. As Indian nationalism developed in the latter half of the nineteenth century, Indians turned to European—especially German—scholars as greater authorities for their own past than the indigenous pundits, who followed tradition and lacked the European standard of critical training.

On June 3, , in India, Karl E. Neumann met an Indian for tea. Every educated person there speaks it. Still one of your own blood, whom it is your duty to treat with mercy, justice, and forbearance;—as you will have to answer for your dealing with him to the God and Father of us all.

Max Muller also later made arguments of equality based on a shared heritage. The ring that was broken thousands of years ago is now being welded together once more. The world is becoming Indo-European. But the true conquest of India, it seems to me, is still to come. The true conquerors of India, of the heart of India, will be those very men whom our new School of Oriental Languages means to fit for their arduous work. Furthermore, this conquest conforms to a metaphor of active, male-gendered Europeans conquering female-gendered natives. This skeptical view was reflected in India in the nineteenth century in the views of Swami Dayananda Sarasvati, founder in of the Ary a Samaj, a Hindu reform movement based on the Vedas.

Max Mu[e]ller, is altogether unfounded. Albrecht Weber made it a point to divorce the ancient Aryans from their modern Indian descendents. Zan- top argues about the German attitude toward colonies. I asked, interested. But you are right. They have a long tradition with India. Max Mueller and Hitler. Sanskrit and the Swastika. I only say thank the heavens our knowledge is not so deep as theirs.

All alone, eighteen thousand feet in the air, next to a frozen glacier, with their books. They try to be Supermen. They are like vampires. Waiting, waiting for the twilight of the gods. To take the place of the gods. I have endeavored to show three features of this system. Schlegel to study Sanskrit, and for statesmen, including Wilhelm von Humboldt, to support their work. Chapter 5 shows how Romanticism remained in the public rhetoric Sanskrit professors used, despite the rejection of most Romantic features in their scholarship. Second, this scholarly Reich served Prussia and, after , the greater German Reich in several distinct ways.

Also, as the oldest of the Indo-European languages, Sanskrit played an important role in the development of linguistic theory during the nineteenth century. The fond dream of a Weltliteratur thus became a reality Appendix: Glossary of Scholars This listing is by no means comprehensive and is only meant to acquaint the reader with the more frequently mentioned scholars referred to in the text. Triibner, and vol. Anquetil-Duperron, Abraham-Hyacinthe Aufrecht, Theodor Doctorate from Flalle , went to England in to work with Max Muller. Successor to Lassen as professor at Bonn University Bastian, Adolf Anthropologist in Berlin, director of the Museum fiir Volkerkunde.

Benfey, Theodor Studied classical philology at Munich and Gottingen. Assistant Professor of Philology at Gottingen from to ; full professor there Bohlen, Peter von Studied theology and oriental languages at Halle, then with A. Bohtlingk, Otto Began studies in St. Petersburg, later went to Bonn and Berlin to study with A.

Petersburg from Bopp, Franz Held the chair for vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft und Sanskrit [Comparative Linguistics and Sanskrit] at the University of Berlin from , and was full professor there from Brockhaus, FIermann Cofounded the Deutsche Morgen- landische Gesellschaft in Elected rector of the university in Buhler, Georg Doctorate at Gottingen for Greek linguistics in Went to London and worked as a private tutor and assistant to the librarian of Queen Victoria, Became professor of Oriental languages at Elphinstone College, Bombay in Diplomat and writer.

Ambassador to London from to Colebrooke, Henry Thomas English Sanskrit scholar and East India Company official Eggeling, Julius Attended universities of Breslau and Berlin. Assistent to Max Muller, Secretary and librarian of the Royal Asiatic Society, Professor of Sanskrit, University College, London, Ewald, Heinrich Attended Gottingen —22, became associate professor there in , and full professor in Went to Tubingen until recalled to Gottingen in Goldstucker, Theodor Born in Konigsberg, studied there for two years at the university, then went to Bonn.

Studied manuscripts in Paris, then lived in Berlin before going to England in Professor of Sanskrit at the University College in London, Grunwedel, Albert Museum curator in Berlin. Expedition leader of Turf an expeditions. Gunderode, Karoline von Romantic author. Took own life because of an unlucky love affair with Heidelberg scholar Friedrich Creuzer.

Left suicide note written in Sanskrit. Hertel, Johannes In , began studies at Leipzig University, awarded doctorate in Hoefer, Albert In went to Griefswald as associate professor, full professor from Jones, Sir William Founder and first president of Royal Asiatick Society of Bengal. Kuhn, Adalbert Teacher at the Kollnisches Gymnasium in Berlin. Lassen, Christian Dissertation Bonn, Lecturer in at Bonn, full professor in Held chair of Indology at Bonn University Luders, Heinrich Professor at Berlin University. Muller, Friedrich Max German-born Oxford professor.

Studied in Leipzig, Berlin, Paris, and London. Neumann, Karl Eugen Buddhist scholar. Never had a professorship. Oldenberg, Hermann Professor at Gottingen and Berlin universities. Pischel, Richard Scholar of Prakrit, Vedas, and Buddhism. On way to give lectures at Calcutta, died in Madras. Became associate professor in , full professor in Halle, Rosen, Friedrich August Studied in Leipzig and Berlin with Bopp.

Chair of oriental languages in the London University, Rost, Reinhold Studied at Jena, where he graduated with a doctorate in Oriental languages Sinhalese in Roth, Rudolf von Studied in Tubingen, Paris, London, Oxford. Worked with Otto von Bohtlingk on the St. Petersburg Sanskrit dictionary. Ruckert, Friedrich Orientalist professor and accomplished poet. Studied at Wurzburg, Heidelberg, and Jena. Taught Oriental languages, including Sanskrit, at the universities of Erlangen and Berlin Schlegel, August Wilhelm von Professor at Bonn University — Der Mensch will bleiben.

Leb wohl! Bei Kleist kam noch etwas dazu. Verehrte Kleistfreunde! Die Verlobung in St. Domingo, Michael Kohlhaas und Heinrich von Kleist gehen fast gleich aus. Kleist hat so etwas wie den Kleist-Preis nicht bekommen, nicht einmal die Anerkennung seiner Zeit. Die Lobhudeleien sind ex post. Das ist die Wahrheit. Und umgekehrt! Vielleicht wollte Kleist mit seiner Tat auch Goethen ein Zeichen geben, wie man es macht, wie man Literatur und Leben zusammenbringt, damit sie eins seien.

Wie man sein Werk unterschreibt. Die Pistole war sein letztes Schreibwerkzeug: die Kugel war seine Tinte. So unterschrieb er. Ungemein verdichteter ist das als jeder Abschiedsbrief. Frage ich mit Robert Walser. Liebe Pathologen! Ach, sage ich mit Kleist: Auch er wollte ja nur einschlafen und nicht mehr hier sein. Es war ja kein Zufall, sondern eine langgehegte Entscheidung, ein Ja zum Nein — oder umgekehrt. Es war aber nicht so wie bei Romeo und Julia.

Ich sage: Kleist war wie ein Roadmovie, bei dem Leben und Sterben zusammenfiel. Und ich habe nun den Kleist-Preis erhalten. Gleich beim 1. Und auch der Jury und der Heinrich-von-Kleist-Gesellschaft, die einen solchen Juror herausgefischt hat, danke ich sehr. Meine Freunde der Kunst! Was ist ein Schriftsteller? Ich spreche hier von meinem Heimatfriedhof aus gedacht, und vom Kleistgrab aus gedacht. Liebe Berlinerinnen und Berliner! Es gibt keine Provinz auf der Welt. Auf dem Feld der Literatur schon gar nicht. Es gibt nur Welt auf der Welt. Die Literatur ist jene zweite Welt, die sich der Mensch nach seiner ersten geschaffen hat, ihrem und seinem Bilde.

Es ist immer eine Art Sonntag, wenn wir etwas sagen wollen. Muttersprache vielleicht? Die Sprache, die meine erste Fremdsprache ist, kann also nicht Heimat sein. Wenn wir schreiben und am Schreibtisch sitzen, sind wir immer auch irgendwo anders. Der Schriftsteller ist in allen Zeitzonen unterwegs. Und zwar gleichzeitig. Und immer sind wir, wenn es ein Buch ist, beim Schreiben und beim Lesen auf einem Nachhauseweg. Meine lieben Mitmenschen!

Kommen Sie in hundert Jahren wieder vorbei, dann sehen wir weiter. Liebe Freunde und Vermisste! Dieses sehnsuchtsbegabte Wesen ist auch noch mit einer Sprache begabt, die ihn meist zum Schweigen verurteilt, die ihm sagt, dass er es nicht sagen kann. Und irgendwann wird er verschwinden, eines Tages, vielleicht auch nachts. Einst stand ich am Mississippi. Mark Tobey, der Maler, war von hier: hier lernte er sehen. Das Wasser, das an mir vorbeifloss, zum Bleiben. Das war alles. Jeder ….

Die Erinnerung ist eine Bluterkrankheit. Es fehlt wohl das Gerinnungselement des Vergessens. So entsteht ein unentwirrbares Gewebe, das bis zur Irritation ein Spiel mit dem Leser treibt. Im Umfeld des neuen Jahrhunderts, Berlin , S. Basisgeschichten, Bd. Die intertextuellen Spiele mit Kleists Werk manifestieren sich aber nicht nur auf thematischer, sondern auch auf rhetorischer und narratologischer Ebene. Doch wurde die Verbindung zwischen Kleist und Kluge nur wenig erforscht. Rede zur Verleihung des Kleist-Preises.

In: KJb , S. Hiermit macht Kluge auf die besondere narrative Dynamik in Kleists Werk aufmerksam. In: De experimentele encyclopedische roman: tussen archief en autofictie, hg. Das im Diana, eine Baronin, wird von ihrem Mann und seinen Jagdgenossen trunken gemacht und wird Opfer einer Gruppenvergewaltigung. SW9 II, bzw. Die Baronin wird wegen des Mordes an ihrem Ehemann zum Tode verurteilt, will aber, als sie entdeckt, dass sie schwanger ist, die Hinrichtung aufschieben.

Aus der Obduktion ergibt sich, dass sie im vierten Monat schwanger war. Jahrhunderts auf intensivierte Sauberkeit. Die Verlagerung impliziert hier keineswegs eine Euphemisierung, sondern eine weitgehende Explizierung des Sexuellen. Wenn man aber genauer hinschaut, entfaltet sich ein intertextuelles Spiel mit Motiv- und Stilzitaten. In: German Life and Letters 61 , H. In: Film Quarterly 46 , S.

In: Dichtung, Wissenschaft, Unterricht, hg. Das Engel- bzw. Kurzschlussartig werden unterschiedliche Bereiche miteinander gleichgesetzt und amalgamiert. Die Spuren versanden aber auch oft, und der Leser verirrt sich im anekdotischen Labyrinth.

ow-preussen-l - Monatsdigest

Jahrhundert sehr beliebten Fallgeschichtensammlungen belegt. Omer und Boulogne, wo Napoleon einen Angriff auf England plante. Jens Bisky, Kleist. Eine Biographie, Berlin , S. In: Ich bin ein Landvermesser. Neue Folge, Hamburg , S. Lessings Schlaf Traum Schrei. Kluge, Die Patriotin, Berlin , S. Jahrhunderts anheimgefallen ist. Auch wenn Kluge Kleist massiv aktualisiert und neuen historischen und aktuellen Kontexten einverleibt, kann er nicht einfach in die radikal politisierende Kleist-Rezeption eingereiht werden.

Kittler, Die Geburt des Partisanen wie Anm. De Cleene und Elshout, Een georkestreerde chaos wie Anm. Kommentierte Ausgabe, hg. Kritische Ausgabe, hg. Erinnerungen an Franz Kafka, hg. Aufzeichnungen und Erinnerungen, Frankfurt a. B II, Es mochte der Untermalung gedient haben, als es noch mythisch induzierte Riten gab. Claudia Liebrand, Kafkas Kleist. In: Textverkehr. Kafka und die Tradition, hg. Kritische Studienausgabe, hg. In: Ders. Gesammelte Werke, hg. Anmerkungen zu einer komplizierten Verwandtschaft. In: Franz Kafka und die Weltliteratur, hg.

Sie dienen der Manifestation latenter Strukturen. Siegfried Vierzig, Mythen der Steinzeit. Die Dinge machen den Eindruck, als bedeuteten sie von ganz allein. Unverhofft wird dabei die innerste menschliche Natur, die sich im Allzumenschlichen erweist, zum Wahrer des Naturkosmos. Der Gewinn wird durch den Verlust erkauft, aber auch nur dann, wenn dieser wie jener mit anderen zu teilen ist, d. Wo er mit niemandem zu teilen ist, stirbt er ab; ebenso, wenn er nichts mit-zuteilen hat.

Entweder scheint das oben beschriebene Schwinden in der Verlust- bzw. Todesbejahung nicht denkbar. Eberhard Haas, Orpheus und Eurydike. Vom Ursprungsmythos des Trauerprozesses. In: Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse 26 , S. Anthropologische und psychoanalytische Aspekte der Trauerarbeit. Sebastian Leikert, Den Spiegel durchqueren. Der griechische Barde wird so eins mit der Natur, dass das organisch Tote ebenso lebendig erscheint wie das Lebendige organisch tot.

Deleuze und Guattari haben dies anschaulich in dem hier vorangestellten Motto formuliert. Leikert, Den Spiegel durchqueren wie Anm. Ursula R. Deshalb erfolgt auch die Genugtuung umgekehrt proportional zur Aschenputtel- oder Sternthalerhandlung. Der Orpheusmythos ist, in dieser Richtung gelesen, eine dance macabre. In diesem Symbolaspekt scheint das Tier in seiner Ur25 26 54 D, D, Das Gegenzivilisatorische dieser Symbolik wird bis zu einem Grad evoziert, wo der Naturverlust gerade noch verschmerzbar erscheint und jedenfalls nicht eingestanden werden darf.

So spiegelt der Autor sich selbstironisch als Opfer eines Zivilisationsoptimismus, das einerseits der Utopisierung und Exotisierung der Naturwildheit nicht entraten kann, sich jedoch nicht erlauben darf, ihr ernsthaft zu verfallen. Das Sein ist mir noch innerlicher, das habe ich gemein mit allen Kreaturen.

Gerhard Oberlin, Sein im Untergang. Rilkes Schreibblockade und seine letzten poetologischen Dichtungen. Auch wenn das vitalistische Utopiemotiv immer wieder als Orgelpunkt in Kafkas Werk anklingt bzw. Tragik und Ironie. Zur Struktur seiner Kunst, Frankfurt a.

KSA I, Sokel, Kafka wie Anm. Seine vergeistigte Askese ist der vergebliche Versuch einer Verinnerlichung um den Preis der physischen Reduktion. Sein Kampf gilt der Menschengestalt, seiner eigenen Physis. Es ist im Grunde der Versuch, die soziale Leistung der Kultur zu widerrufen. In: Colloqium Helveticum. In: Schriftverkehr, hg. Dazu kommt die romantische Vision der menschlichen Naturimmanenz, die freilich als idealistische Utopie bereits eine transzendierende Richtung nimmt. In dessen depravierD, Ich bin eben ein schlechter Seemann. Max Brod ist ganz anders. Das ist ein Preisschwimmer.

Musik ist eine Multiplikation des sinnlichen Lebens. Verstummen 56 57 58 59 60 61 60 B III, J, E, N II, In: Kittler und Neumann Hg. Sprache ist physisches Sprachhandeln: Sprechen und Schreiben. Im Laut erst wird Sprechen Natur. Eine gewisse Analogie zur animalischen Welt ist damit gegeben. Die Inkorporation wird im psychologischen Bild ganz besonders deutlich. Unschwer ist in dieser Struktur des Scheiterns auch eine Reminiszenz des biblischen Genesismythos zu erkennen, der dem Menschen kein anderes Los bestimmt als die unumkehrbare Vertreibung aus dem Naturparadies.

Essen bedeutet Erkennen dessen, was man nicht erkennen soll, weil man es nicht erkennen kann oder aber das Erkannte nicht zu leben vermag. Grenzen der Symbolik, Berlin , S. Der Punkt der Wahrheit ist immer die Psyche. In diese Verlegenheitskonstruktion, welche die alte Gesamtimmanenz vorspiegelt, muss nur noch ein Mechanismus eingebaut werden, der verhindert, dass sie durchschaut wird.

Das kann eine sophistische Tarnkappe oder ein Tabu sein. Kafkas ganze Kunst besteht geradezu in der Selbstbehauptung des Zeichens angesichts seiner Abschaffung, der absurden Bezeichnung des Nicht-Bezeichnenden. Dass dieses Skandalon selbst von symbolstiftender Signifikanz ist, mag Kafka geahnt haben. T, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Tractatus logico-philosophicus. Logisch-philosophische Abhandlung, Frankfurt a. Oberlin, Gott und Gliedermann wie Anm.

Oktober geborene und am Der Gegenstand illustriert die Form und umgekehrt. Der Autor komponiert, indem er zerlegt. Diesem Vorgang unterliegt auf der Motivebene das Musiksymbol, das zum Paradigma einer Dekonstruktion wird. In: Impulse 13 , S. Interpretationen, hg. Kleist gibt sich mit der Wahl seines Sujets als Betroffener zu erkennen, aber auch als Introspekteur, der hinter die Kulissen blicken will. In der Buchfassung wird deshalb gerade die Musikmotivik noch einmal besonders ausgearbeitet.

SW9 II, — So werden beispielsweise die einzelnen Instrumente beim Namen genannt. Das Erstaunliche freilich ist, wie breit und gezielt dabei die Musik mit Weiblichkeit in Zusammenhang gebracht wird. Hoffmann, Kreisleriana Nr.

Max Oberbreyer

In: Jahrbuch der deutschen Schillergesellschaft 41 , S. Bereits Moser hat theologische Elemente calvinistischer Herkunft in dieser Novelle nachgewiesen. Kunst- und literaturhistorische Recherchen, Bielefeld , hier S. Schmidt, Die Geschichte des Geniegedankens wie Anm. In: Melancholie, hg. Nach einer Kolleghandschrift. Die Magie. Reprographischer Nachdruck der 2. Auflage, Bd. Hildesheim , S. Die Sprache hier spiegelt in ihrem z. Die Kranken selbst wirken dagegen in ihrer ruhigen Lebensroutine bereits frei von den Agonien des Denkens und Glaubens.

Wir haben es also mit Kontrafakturen zu tun, die an Travestien grenzen oder Travestien, die an Kontrafakturen anliegen. Doch bedeutet das letztlich erst recht deren Ende, insofern sich nunmehr erweisen muss, wes Geistes Kind die traditionellen Kunstsymbole eigentlich waren.

Ob man hier lediglich eine neue Metaphysik am Werk sieht, wie sie z. Zur Bedeutung Nietzsches in der Gegenwartsphilosophie. In: Metaphysik in un-metaphysischer Zeit, hg. KSA I, 33f. Anthony Stephens stellt zwar die Verdienste Allemanns um den 3 Vgl. Alt widmet sich in seinem Aufsatz einer Analyse der unterschiedlichen historischen und geistesgeschichtlichen Kontexte, in denen Kleist und Kafka lebten und schrieben.

September In: Franz Kafka. Hiebel, Franz Kafka. Heinrich von Kleist und die Strategie der Befreiungskriege, Freiburg i. Sprache und Gewalt, Freiburg i. Dankrede zum KleistPreis Beda Allemann, Kleist und Kafka. Ein Strukturvergleich []. In: Jahrbuch des freien deutschen Hochstifts , S. In: Berliner Tageblatt vom 6. Juli , wiederabgedruckt in: Franz Kafka. Kritik und Rezeption zu seinen Lebzeiten —, hg. In: Heinrich von Kleist. Das braucht keineswegs gegen die Verwandtschaft zu sprechen.

Siehe David E. Wellbery Hg.

Synonyms and antonyms of Projektionsfläche in the German dictionary of synonyms

Zehn Modellanalysen, Stuttgart David E. In: NR, S. In: Penthesileas Versprechen. Gesichtspunkten gelesen. M , S. Agamben, Was ist ein Paradigma wie Anm. Trotz der Gleichzeitigkeit bzw. Agamben befragt daher nicht nur Kuhn, Foucault, Aristoteles, Kant und andere auf einer inhaltlichen Ebene zum Paradigma, sondern versucht auch formal, den paradigmatischen Charakter seines Essays auszustellen: Das beinahe fragmentarische, etwas assoziative Nebeneinanderstellen kurzer Textstellen diverser Denker statt detaillierter Analysen deaktiviert eine klare Definition d.

Kuhn, Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen wie Anm. Der entscheidende Aspekt an Agambens Untersuchung ist somit sicherlich die Herausarbeitung des Zusammenhangs von Paradigma und Paradigmatologie, d. Diese Schwierigkeit der Einordnung d. Die Diagnose, methodologisch reflektierbare Strukturen sowie generell typisch poststrukturalistische Themen wie Gender, Race, Performanz etc.

Analyse inzwischen als kulturwissenschaftlicher Text figuriert. Zugespitzt formuliert: Texte sind different und sinn-los, widerstehen der Theorie. In: Romantik, Literatur und Philosophie, hg. Das Projekt soll noch in diesem Jahr abgeschlossen werden. Mai Ich will ein anderes Theater.

In: Dies. Herausforderungen an das Theater, Frankfurt a. Es gibt uns. Jelinek, Wolken. Burkhardt Lindner, Deutschland. Erhabener Abgesang. Elfriede Jelineks SpiegelVerzerrung zur Selbsterkenntnis. April , S. Margarete Kohlenbach, Montage und Mimikry. Georg Stanitzek, Kuckuck.

In: Gelegenheit. Stanitzek, Kuckuck wie Anm. Da sind sie, die andern! Jagt sie, bis seliger Tage Erinnerung sie gewesen sein werden. Sie sollen das Zeitliche segnen! In: Tumult 10 , S. Und wieder! Werner Hamacher, Afformativ, Streik. Hart-Nibbrig, Frankfurt a. Frauenfiguren im Drama um Internationales Kolloquium des Kleist-Archivs, hg. Poschmann, Der nicht mehr dramatische Theatertext wie Anm. Heide Helwig, Mitteilungen von Untoten. In: Sprachkunst. Halbband, S. Die negativistische Kritik, welche in Jelineks Werken angelegt ist, bleibt dabei aber immer ohne Utopie.

Dieses dient dabei praktisch nicht mehr 37 Konstanze Fliedl, Im Abseits. Elfriede Jelineks Nobelpreisrede. In: Elfriede Jelinek. Sprache, Geschlecht und Herrschaft, hg. Eine kleine Trilogie des Todes, Reinbek , S. Dabei handelt es sich um teils hochgradig markierte Allusionen: Still auch, auf diese Tat wards. Das kriege ich nie hin!

Hierauf ward ihr die Krone aufgesetzt. In: manuskripte 39 , S. In: Kurier vom Januar , S. Riley, Bd. Zwischenbemerkung zum Begriff des Politischen, Berlin , S. Evidenzen generiert werden. Nun ists gut. Anders anders anders! Ich Stanitzek, Kuckuck wie Anm. Dort bist du ja! Als ich selbst noch eine Frau war. Meine weiche Brust ist mir nach hinten gerutscht, sie lachen mich aus sie lachen mich aus sie lachen mich aus. Wer bin ich. Was anderes habe ich meist nicht zur Hand. Oh je! Der Dolch ermordet nicht Penthesilea als Frau, so lesen wir mit Jelinek, sondern Penthesilea als Vorstellung einer vorsprachlichen Theaterfigur mit personalem Kern.

Man nennt das auch performative Sprechakte. Umberto Eco, Innovation and Repetition. Between Modern and Post-Modern Aesthetics. In: Daedalus , H. Der Leserfreundlichkeit halber soll allerdings begonnen werden mit einigen knappen bio- und biblio- bzw. Biografisches: Guido Crepax und Pappi Corsicato Guido Crepax — gilt als einer der international bekanntesten und erfolgreichsten italienischen Comiczeichner.

In: Guido Crepax, hg. Jekyll and Mr. Als Kind nahm er Tanzunterricht in seiner Heimatstadt. Filmfestspiele in Venedig teil, gewann jedoch keine Preise. Comic- und illustrierte Adaption setzen eine verschiedene Herangehensweise an die literarische Vorlage voraus. Guido Crepax, Justine. Dal Marchese de Sade, Milano ; ders. Jekyll e Mr. Da Robert L. Stevenson, Milano ; ders. Da Henry James, Milano ; ders. Da Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Milano Ausgangstexte werden parodiert und travestiert, ganz oder partiell fragmentiert und manchmal fast bis zur Unkenntlichkeit verwandelt […].

In: Comics. In: Crepax, Il processo wie Anm. Wie u. Heinrich von Kleist, Tutti i racconti, hg. Mediologie des Internationales Kolloquium des Kleist-Archivs Sembdner, hg. Dennoch — wir werden im Folgenden mehrmals darauf Bezug nehmen — werden Trieb und Wollust bei Kleist nicht radikal getilgt; als bedrohliche Instanzen sind sie immer unterschwellig vorhanden.

Die Figur der Marquise, auf dem Boden liegend, ist ganz im Hintergrund zu sehen. Bentzel, Knowledge in Narrative. In: The German Quarterly 64 , H. In: DVjs 28 , S. In: Guido Crepax wie Anm. Der Zusammenhang von Ordnung und Chaos bzw. Die Protagonisten narrativer Texte von E. Beachtlich ist dabei die Detailgenauigkeit des Zeichners. In der Novelle dreht sich alles um das Zusammenprallen von stasis und change, d. Betrachten wir die Illustrationen nun genau. Ich beziehe mich hier auf das zweite Bild. Bei Crepax sowie bei Kleist ist hier Ambivalenz Programm.

BEOWULFs Läuterung - Die Germanen, die Römer, das Geldsystem und die Christen

In: Heinrich von Kleist, hg. In: Women in German Yearbook 12 , S. Radikale Werktreue. In: Literaturverfilmungen, hg. Emanuele Bigi, Pappi Corsicato. September , www. In: La Repubblica Das Familien- und Sexualleben von Mario und Veronica ist ereignislos und lahm; Kinder haben sie nicht. Sie versucht, sich loszuwinden, wird allerdings festgehalten.

Als sie verwirrt wieder aufwacht, befindet sich Gabriele Michele Venitucci , die Sicherheitskraft ihres eigenen Ladens, neben ihr und hilft ihr auf. Veronica ist ratlos; sie ahnt nicht einmal, wie es dazu kommen konnte. Erst im Laufe der Wochen begreift Veronica, dass sie an dem Abend, an dem sie angegriffen wurde, auch vergewaltigt worden sein muss. Aber durch wen? Veronica will aber nicht daran glauben und gebietet ihm, ihre Wohnung zu verlassen und sich nie wieder blicken zu lassen.

Mit dieser neuen Erkenntnis sucht Veronica eine Klinik auf, wo sie das Kind abzutreiben beabsichtigt. Wo liegt hier allerdings die Wahrheit? Mario ist seinerseits gleichfalls unehrlich. The Problem of Knowledge. In: Monatshefte 67 , S. Soboczynski, Das arcanum wie Anm. Was die Novelle in dieser Hinsicht angeht, kann hier kein breit angelegter Forschungsbericht angestrebt werden.

Auf diesen kontrastreichen Zusammenhang hat die Schauspielerin Murino in einer Pressekonferenz hingewiesen; vgl. In: Il Giornale, Hartmut Kircher, Heinrich von Kleist. Die Ikonografie der Madonna weicht nun von der des Originals ab. Genauso wie in Rohmers Adaption wird auch bei Corsicato das Einsetzen der Schwangerschaft infolge der Vergewaltigung durch eine onirische Szene markiert.

Danach wird sie im Bett liegend aufgenommen; ihre leichten Regungen evozieren die Vorstellung, die Marquise habe gerade einen erotischen Traum, der ihr einen Orgasmus verschafft. Weitere Zitate sind auch im Filmdialog zu erkennen. Im ersteren ging es auch dem spanischen Filmemacher um die Vergewaltigung eines bewusstlosen, im Koma liegenden Opfers.

Ebenso finden sich Sinfonische Dichtungen. Aber auch kleinere Formen fanden ihre Vertonungen. Eine Bibliographie. In: Werke Kleists auf dem modernen Musiktheater, hg. Zu Terterjan vgl. Mascha Erbelding, Der Klang der Masse. Modernes Musiktheater wird von der traditionellen Oper durch seine Textgrundlage unterschieden. Jahrhundert entsprach und dramaturgisch mit den Vorlagen recht frei verfuhr. Zu Beginn des Beiseite bleiben biographisch orientierte Kompositionen, von denen in neuerer Zeit mehrere entstanden sind.

Unter diesen Voraussetzungen soll drittens gezeigt werden, warum zu bestimmten Zeiten welche Texte Kleists zur Grundlage von Literaturopern wurden und auch, welche warum nicht. Tanja Langer, Kleist. Oper von Rainer Rubbert. Eine solche Verdeutlichung braucht auch noch die Literaturoper, die sich der Wiederholung von Textpassagen zumeist verweigert.

Das Moment der Empfindung ist in gewissem Sinne zentral, gerade im Vergleich zum Sprechtheater: Im Drama und noch im epischen Theater Brechts sprechen die Figuren fast immer miteinander, und die Repliken haben meist auch eine pragmatische Funktion. Die Arie als tragendes Formteil hat keine handlungsimmanente pragmatische Funktion, sondern ist Selbstausdruck einer Figur, ganz ans Publikum gerichtet. Auch in den Zu dieser Fragestellung vgl. In: Werke Kleists auf dem modernen Musiktheater wie Anm. Die Literaturoper wirkt aus dieser Sicht wie ein Notbehelf.

Auf der Ebene der Regie sind Abweichungen deutlich markiert. Das Musiktheater gibt viel mehr vor als das Sprechtheater. So ist das Tempo durch die Musik weitgehend festgelegt; und die Satzmelodie, die der Schauspieler vergleichsweise Literaturopern nach Kleist frei variieren kann, ist durch die Vertonung vorgegeben. Kleist-Opern entsprechen diesem Schema nicht und doch. Was ein Regisseur mit ihnen anstellt, wird darum in der Regel als Zutat der Inszenierung nicht bemerkt.

Komische Oper in 3 6 Zur freien Umformung der Handlung vgl. Ein Beitrag zur Rezeptionsgeschichte, Heilbronn Doch ist daran zu erinnern, dass auch das Drama erst gespielt wurde, und zwar nur in einer weitreichenden Bearbeitung, und dass Hugo Wolfs Symphonische Dichtung von —85 erst einige Zeit nach ihrer Komposition rezipiert wurde. Seine Funkoper erlebte ihre 9 Vgl. Jahrhundert wie Anm. Klein, Ideologisierung von Werken Kleists in Opern aus dem Antje Thumat, Dichterin und Komponist.

Bachmann und Henze liefern in dieser Hinsicht ein eindimensionales Gegenmodell zur eindimensionalen nationalkonservativen Rezeption. In: Pfitzner und das musikalische Theater, hg. Orientiert an der Opernform des Wieder abgedruckt in: Werke Kleists auf dem modernen Musiktheater wie Anm. Notwendige Informationen aus der Vorgeschichte montiert er um. Doch wer mag schuldig sein, ist er nicht gern allein, sie sind lieber zu zwein, zu zwein! In: Auseinandersetzung mit Othmar Schoeck. Gleichzeitig verzichtet er darauf, das Weggelassene nachzutragen. Aber auch in ihren Ruhezonen ist Schoecks musikalische Welt statisch.

In: Auseinandersetzung mit Othmar Schoeck wie Anm. Die Verwicklungen und das Verwickelte der Situation verdeutlicht Schoeck, indem er eine mehrfache Abstufung des Sprechens bis zum Singen verwendet. Wichtiger aber sind vielleicht wirksame Kontrastbildungen. Anders liegt der Fall, wo 21 Vgl. Othmar Schoeck, Penthesilea. Jahrhunderts beziehen. Das ist — zugunsten des Werks — misslungen. Kurz: Er tendiert zur Opernfigur, die sich implizit ans Publikum richtet. Bachmann und Henze steigern das Ineinander zum Gleichzeitigen.

Thumat, Dichterin und Komponist wie Anm. Dass eine Umsetzung zu leicht gelingen kann, ist ein Gedanke, der erst bezogen auf die Neue Musik des Jahrhunderts denkbar wird. Kleist in den USA? In einem Brief an Wilhelmine von Zenge vom Was wissen Asien, u Afrika u Amerika von unsern Genien? Jahrhundert einstellte. Im Wissen um Kleists inter- nationalen Nachruhm — wie er u.

Und wer redet dort von ihm? Hubbs einleitend in einer der wenigen Arbeiten zur Kleist-Rezeption in Amerika feststellt. In: Kleist-Handbuch. Leben — Werk — Wirkung, hg. Valentine C. Hubbs, Heinrich von Kleist in America. A History of his Reception with a Bibliography. Eydt-Beebe, Reception and Translation. Pennsylvania State University , S. Hubbs, Kleist in America wie Anm. Franz-Joachim Verspohl Hg. Doctorow, der mit der Figur des Coalhouse Walker Jr. Eydt-Beebe, Reception and Translation wie Anm.

SCRR. Studies in Critical Research on Religion

In: Kleist-Handbuch wie Anm. Mary Howard, Vom Sonderling zum Klassiker. New York University Kleist and E. In: Heinrich von Kleist Studies, hg. Helbling, E. Kleist Revisited. Es liegt daher nahe, verschiedene Formen der Rezeption in Betracht zu ziehen. Hinzu kommt die Resonanz 15 Vgl. Kleist Reception in the U.

A Study of the Figure of Egmont, the Dutch Revolt and its Influence in Europe

In: Comparative Literature Studies 18 , H. Gelus und Crowley, Kleist Reception in the U. Jahrhunderts relativ unbekannt geblieben ist. Zum anderen zeichnet sich in der amerikanischen Kleist-Forschung aber auch eine klare Tendenz zur vermittelnden Integration ab. Entsprechend kann man mit Helmut J. In: Kulturphilosophen als Leser. Zum Widerstreit zweier Interpretationsweisen. Chases Essay orientiert sich stark an de Mans Ansatz — was nicht verwundert, erwarb sie ihren Doktortitel doch im Umfeld der amerikanischen Dekonstruktivisten u. Helmut J. Schneider, Deconstruction of the Hermeneutical Body.

Kleist and the Discourse of Classical Aesthetics. Mechanical Doll, Exploding Machine. In: Oxford Literary Review 6 , H. Chase, Mechanical Doll wie Anm. Paradoxerweise entfaltet dieser Zettel seine Kraft gerade Vgl. Ist man z. Carol Jacobs, Uncontainable Romanticism. Jacobs, Uncontainable Romanticism wie Anm. Hillis Miller, The Ethics of Reading. Hillis Miller, Preface. Hillis Miller, Just Reading. Kleist, In: Ders. In: Cardozo Law Review 11 , H. Kleists Formalisierung des Lesens, Freiburg i. Kleists Skeptizismus. Niklas Luhmann, Dekonstruktion als Beobachtung zweiter Ordnung.

Abgesehen von diesen stark theoretisch akzentuierten Arbeiten sind aus der US-Kleist-Forschung der er-Jahre aber auch eine Reihe einflussreicher Studien hervorgegangen, die sich eher traditionell-konservativer Methoden der Textarbeit bedienen: so zum Beispiel die quellenorientierte Arbeit von Hermann F. Werner Hamacher, Das Beben der Darstellung.

In: Wellbery, Positionen der Literaturwissenschaft wie Anm. In: Jahrbuch der deutschen Schillergesellschaft 22 , S. Man denke in diesem Zusammenhang nur an die Studie von Richard H. Samuel und Hilda M. Weiss, Funde und Studien wie Anm. Dabei ist zu bedenken, dass seit keine Originalhandschrift eines Prosatextes von Kleist mehr entdeckt worden war. Richard H. Der in Carl Bertuchs Pariser Tagebuch am Februar und April Bernd Hamacher, Kleist-Editionen. In: Editionen zu deutschsprachigen Autoren als Spiegel der Editionsgeschichte, hg. Hamacher, Kleist-Editionen wie Anm. Heinrich von Kleist, Plays, hg.

Doctorow, New York Bernd Fischer, Ironische Metaphysik. Klopstock, Herder, Fichte, Kleist. Fischer, Ironische Metaphysik wie Anm.